National Service and Inclusion Project

Inclusion: The active engagement of people with disabilities as service members in all levels of national and community service
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UMass ICI

   ROUGHLY EDITED COPY

NSIP MONTHLY WEBCAST

AUGUST 30, 2005

2:00 PM EST

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This text is being provided in a rough draft format. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.

>> ELESHEVA SOLOFF: Hi. Can everyone hear me okay? Great. Okay. I just want to welcome everyone to the National Inclusion Project teleconference call.

And we are training a technical assistance provider for the corporation for national and community service. We offer these \teleconference calls on a variety on topics related to national service and disability. And we also offer training over E-mail, phone, fax. If you need to talk to us about any disability related question, feel free to e-mail us any time. My name is Elesheva Soloff.

And I'll change the slide. Okay. Here is our website.   Here is our slide with a toll free number. You can reach us any time, so you can click on it.

>> ALVARO TOBAR: This is Alvaro again. Just a little thing that happened. The captions may have been covering everyone's screen. If you don't need the captions, please close that screen without closing the Centra symposium screen. That should take care of everything. Sorry about that.

>> ELESHEVA SOLOFF: Our speaker today is Dr. Susan Foley. Dr. Foley is a Research Coordinator at the Insitute for Community Inclusion at the University of Massachusetts Boston. she received her doctorate from the Florence Heller School for Advanced Social Policy at Brandeis University. She is the Principal Investigator of a federally funded project examining employment outcomes for people with disabilities. She is also analyzing vocational rehabilitation data to determine what is related to employment for people with different types of disabilities and people receiving welfare benefits. Dr. Foley oversees several research projects that seek to improve educational opportunities for students with disabilities. She has taught applied research and disability policy courses at the university of Massachusetts Boston and Tufts University. She has been with ICI for 8 years. And we are happy to have her join us.

>> SUSAN FOLEY: Thank you. Very nice introduction.

As we progress through this, I hope you bear with me. I'm learning this technology and I'm afraid I may make some mistakes, but hopefully we will have a good time together going through both the -- this new fangled website deal as well as learning about surveys.

   Just to get a sense, I'd like to find out how many of you have created a survey trying to measure disability?

   So it looks like about two of you or so have -- three. Four. It's growing. And people have it.

   (Showing of hands.)

   How many of you are thinking of or sort of see in the near future that you will do so? Okay.

   (Showing of hands.)

   Quite a few.

   And last question. How many of you survey your members on a regular basis or you survey methods to find out about what your volunteers or members are doing?

   (Showing of hands.)

   Well, great. Great. So we have got some folks are considering doing a survey. You've got a few folks that had some experience with it. And then relatively few that actually have done stuff around disability. I'm hoping that as we go through it today I won't scare you off, but will actually make you consider this as a possibility for your program.

   So as we go, I'm now going to try to get down to the slide that I've got. And I hope I shall not make a mistake. Here we go.

   All right. We have two major questions that I would -- I'm going to cover in this hour. Actually, survey work, you can probably , you know, days and days for those of us that love this kind of stuff. But the two major areas are really figuring out what you're going to ask, and then how you're going to actually survey. And what I'm hoping, as I progress through this, is that you'll have a better sense of those two things.

   I also would like to offer, if you have a question as I'm talking, please feel free to either hit that little raise your hand button, and I'll try and pay attention maybe with some prompting here from Alvaro, or if you -- if for some reason the technology isn't working for you there, if you want to text message me, we will try to respond to those quickly. But feel free to interrupt. I am happy to go off on tangents if it's what we need to do today. And I'm also happy to enter any questions you have as you're trying to do this for your members.

   So as I mentioned, defining the construct. That is a survey method kind of word there that basically is trying to say how do you define what disability means? And how do you change that into a definition that you can create specific questions for?

   So the next slide. Capturing disability status. It's a very tricky thing. And even survey researchers who are advanced and in this field for quite sometime face a very difficult challenge in creating a survey that can really measure disability status. So it's a daunting prospect to do it in a comprehensive way. But there are ways that you may be able to do it for your program.

   The first I wanted to show you is sort of the realm of issues. And many of you I'm sure are very familiar with this. But capturing disability status has some implications across multiple sort of survey issues. First, it's a multidimensional concept. And by that, it's nuanced and it has a lot of different levels to it. There is an aspect of time. So being disabled or meeting a criteria for having a disability means you've been having some sort of impairment or health condition that lasted at least six months. So in that sense you want to avoid broken legs and flus and temporary illness that might create functional impairment.

   The second is that there is some functional impairment. It must cause a disruption in daily activities. I just noticed that Deena has her hand up.

As soon as I learn how to pass her a microphone. You might have to type in text chat if you don't have a microphone. Do you have a Mic, Deena?

   The microphone is over to you. Hold down the control key on your computer to speak. Quintin, I think I need to pass it to you.

   >> QUINTIN: I'm still not able to see the capturing disability status slide. It's still blank.

   >> SUSAN FOLEY: Thank you for sharing that. Alvaro just flagged -- Quintin mentioned -- yes, Jason. Go ahead.

   >> JASON: Sue, sorry. One thing we didn't learn is that if you have the captioning window open right now, you have to click that onto the window that has the slide in it; otherwise, you will not be able to have your slides change. The captioning window can just stay over on your right-hand side, but you should be clicked on the one that has the slides in it.

   >> ALVARO: Just a quick question. Can you see the actual slide that is in front of you that should read "Capturing disability status?" Please give us a check if that is the case.

   >> SUSAN FOLEY: So it looks like you might have the captioning window open. Can you close that and then see it?

   >> ALVARO: I'll ask Sue to refresh that slide and that should bring it back. You should be seeing the "Capturing disability stastus" again.

   >> SUSAN FOLEY: Well, we solved the technological problem, and thanks for bearing with us, people. I realize that this is a new experience for everyone. I'll continue along.

   The other aspect of disability that makes it a multidimensional concept is the environmental social technological context to it. And sometimes you hear within a disability definition that, you know, some folks may be disabled if they do not use a specific technology. But if they do use it, they no longer meet disability definitions. Very tricky legal language. And when you try to capture that in a survey, it becomes very, very difficult to get that. So just to bear that in mind that it's -- disability is in a sense a moving target.

   There is a social cultural perspective of disability, and I think for some of you are involved with Senior Corps programs. How many are involved with Senior Corps?

   (Showing of hands.)

   Quite a few. It looks like three.

   Disability as understood by people over 50, there is some cultural implications to it, as probably the most -- not eloquent way to say it. But sometimes when you are trying to measure disability in a group of folks that are over 55, say, it's a very challenging thing to figure out how to word items so that people understand what you mean.

   From a social perspective, we all expect as we get older that we are going to lose certain sensory hearing and visual. Some folks may perceive that as a disability. Some folks may not. And it's kind of a question of how do people perceive any particular type of impairment? You may want to word things differently to a population that is over 55, and not ever use the term "Disability." But use "Have you ever been determined legally blind?" Or "has a doctor ever diagnosed you with a visual impairment?"

   So in some ways, "disability" is not necessarily the word you want to use. Culturally, different societies, different cultures perceive "disability" differently. And that can be challenging on how you word and phrase questions.

   There is also the political implications of disability status in which, for example, deaf culture. Folks who are deaf and particularly folks who may have been born deaf will not view it as a disability necessarily. They may view it as a language. So sometimes if you ask a direct question: Do you consider yourself a person with a disability? Someone who is deaf may say no or may indicate that they do not have a functional impairment, do not have a disability, that they have a different language. So keep that in mind.

   Some folks who identify just "disability" as a civil rights group are more likely to answer that question: Do you consider yourself a person with a disability? A yes, than people who don't see it that way.

   And so that gets challenging of how you ask things so that you're getting the right responses.

   Deena, you have a question. Please go ahead. Do you know how to text message us? If you could type your question in the text message box, I can then say it and caption it and everyone can hear it.

   Deena asked if we will be able to download the Power Point. Certainly we can make that accessible to you. Alvaro, maybe at the end of the session can give a bit of information about how to do that. But we can also get it to you in multiple ways. So for sure.

   Just as a little note, if people want to text chat, send it publicly, and then everyone can see it. And we can -- you've got a public and a private option.

   Moving on. The complexity of the construct. The World Health Organization has developed an international classification of disability, and it breaks it into three dimensions: Medical or health condition, a functional limitation and participation restrictions, and environmental restrictions. And I just wanted to give you a sense of that. I don't want to scare you. It's a very complex thing. But if we can go over to the -- this is going to be a tricky maneuver as I'll try to get onto a Web Page and I'll probably need help here. Just one second.

   Alvaro is helping us get to the website. What I'm going to do here is the World Health Organization has what is called the ICF checklist. And it's basically an international classification of functioning. And it helps you walk through the disability components of it. And I'm going to keep moving on with the presentation here while Alvaro gets us to the URL. But, it does give you some specific questions that cover each of these areas. And it will give you a sense of how complex it can be to get to accurate definitions of disability or accurate prevalence rates.

   If you have some time after this conference, feel free to go onto the World Health Organization Website, and look for their international classification of functioning and disability. And I think that that would be something to really look at a little bit more.

   The World Health Organization is trying to promote that survey researchers use their classification as a way to measure disability, and there are some organizations looking into adopting at least some of it as they develop like large scale surveys. So I don't want to delay as we are waiting for that website. But should it come up, it will be a great thing to see.

   There are three major types of disability definitions that you see in survey research. One is a functional/activity limitation in which the questions ask, because of a health condition or a disability, does the person experience or do you experience limits in the ability to, and then there is a list of functional limitations, such as walk, talk, think, see, hear, remember. And then there is also something there that gives a condition or a time frame on it. Like at least six months, or sometimes you see the word "Permanent," which I don't recommend because it's interpreted very differently by a lot of folks.

   But the second is an option where you list out the specific disability or condition or disease: Down Syndrome, MS, macular degeneration, and people are more likely to say yes to those things or understand those things. However, you can imagine how difficult it is to create a comprehensive list and it is often paired with some sort of measure of severity or onset.

   The easiest one to use is what we call a self-report or a self-identification measure, where you say directly, do you have a disability? And I'm going to go through some of the advantages and disadvantages of each of these to help you think through them.

   If you use disability is measured by a health condition only, you really need to consider the severity of conditions. So if you're asking folks do you have depression or asthma or visual impairment, you have to have some sort of link to how severe this is or some metric for that. Not all folks with asthma will have a disability. Some folks with asthma do.

   The survey measurement issue here is that the number of conditions is simply too large. And the ability to determine severity per condition is very, very difficult to do.

   So one strategy that some survey researchers will use is they will try to identify some conditions in which they say people may not say yes to: Do you have a disability? And try to see if they can narrow in. Like, for example, have you ever been -- did a doctor diagnose you as having legal blindness? For example. That might be something you might want to consider with the Senior Corps members as a specific disability that you know are likely to be high prevalence.

   And then -- okay. We have made it to the URL. The World Health Organization -- thanks, Alvaro. The World Health Organization is really promoting images of health and disability. And you can see from this part that the -- they have the -- a rather astonishing picture, I must say. But down at the bottom is the international classification of functioning disability and health.

   So if you are -- if you would like to, at the bottom of that URL, press where it says related links, international classification of functioning, disability and health. When you get there, at the bottom it says ICF home page. Were you able to get there?

   Then there is, off on the far right corner there is this ICF online, international classification of functioning, disability and health. And it might take a bit to load up on your computer, and that is where you might find the instrument.

   I'm not going to spend a lot of time there. It's already close to 3:30. But that would be something that you can take a look at to see what that tool is all about.

   I'm going to return us back to the slides. And keep going. Does everyone see the functional/activity limitation slide? Okay. Great.

   The functional/activity limitation slide, basically, it's easier to measure functional activity in a sense than it is health conditions. You can see why. There are many scales that exist, such as the activities of daily living, and there is a much more constrained number of activity limitations than there are conditions. So a lot of people tend to use the functional/activity limitations. But you have to combine this with some indication of severity. And that can be simply: Do you have great difficulty with walking or do you have great or are you unable to walk less than 100 feet. ? You can kind of combine these measures.

   There is -- it uses self-report surveys, meaning that someone has filled this out and given it back to you. That has some disadvantages, because two people with the same functional limitation could report it differently. For example, someone with asthma may be a little bit more stoic than someone else and not report breathing as a limitation, even though clinically they may be at the exact same level. So you run into problems in knowing that any two people are reporting those limitations the same way.

   You also, as you get into different age groups, there is what we call an anchor problem in that the person may be comparing themselves to their age peers, and thinking well, as an active 70 year old person, I see better than a lot of my friends, rather than a 25 year old, even though they both may have the exact same visual impairment. So you run into those kinds of perceptual issues about how -- basically, ask yourself how impaired does someone have to believe they are to report that they have a disability? And that varies from person to person quite substantially.

   An example of a functional limitation is of course a work limitation. And not a favorite among a lot of federal agencies to use work limitation, where you ask quite clearly: Do you have a health problem or disability which prevents you from working or limits the kind of work you do? The CPS, which is the current population survey, out of the Bureau of the Census uses that exact question that I gave you here.

   The problem with it is that it is sometimes over-inclusive, where people may say yes to this, even though they don't have a disability. And it's under-inclusive because People with Disabilities who work might say no. If you can imagine someone who, say, uses a wheelchair, but is a computer programmer and works full time, will they say they have a work limitation or not? Versus someone, perhaps, with a broken leg might say they do have a work limitation. And I think you end up with very odd outcomes with some of these phrases.

   Pregnancy is a very big one in which even when you plug a 6 to 9 month time frame, you sometimes get folks who say I can't work because I'm pregnant, which often is because they have some sort of issue with their pregnancy. And so you have to make some very specific statements about what you're trying to measure and think of who might perceive themselves to have a limitation versus a disability.

   Are there any questions so far? I like the Xs, this is helpful. Thank you very much. I'm not sure we are going to get to this slide, either. Let's see. I'll try it. As you noticed on the World Health Organization site, they are trying to create these images of disability. And I guess it won't come up. But there is, if you have some time to look at that website and click on the images of disability, and there's some about disability and employment. There is a slide where there are two women who are working in a field. One has a prosthetic limb and the other does not. And the reason I brought this picture into the conversation was really to show you that folks with disabilities who are working may not perceive their impairment or their prosthesis in this case as a work limitation. And so if they are currently working, currently volunteering, currently a member, they may not actually see an impairment.

That's quite complex.

   Self-report measure is one that you see quite a lot. Do you have a disability? Do you have a disability or health condition that causes a functional limitation lasting more than 6 months? Problems are that there are specific groups that are less likely to say yes to this question. Older people, people with cognitive disabilities, people who are deaf, people with a stigmatizing condition, largely because they don't perceive themselves as a person with a disability.

   Some people with disabilities, meaning they might meet a legal definition of disability, might not necessarily fit that definition. Where these are people with a history of disability, they meet the ADA definition, but they don't consider themselves currently having a disability.

   And then some people may say yes to it, and not meet the legal definition of disability. And this can get particularly true for people with certain disorders that the ADA explicitly rules out, such as they are actively substance abusing. There was a whole deviance clause. If you want to read something humorous, in the back of the ADA, I think it was Senator Helmes who put in a whole clause listing all the mental health disorders that couldn't be considered disabilities, because he considered them deviant behavior. For example, Pyromania. So it's an odd amendment there, but you do sometimes have difficulty determining whether someone who said do you have a disability actually is someone with a disability. You have no additional knowledge about it.

   So one of the things that you run into for program evaluation and a disability survey is that measures of disability that are currently being used by a lot of survey groups, Federal Governments, are too complex for program evaluation efforts, particularly for nonprofits and state commissions. However, there is some hope, because there is possibly ways to use reduced disability definitions and there are some ways to use -- to balance feasibility and accuracy. You might have to realize that there might be some false-positives and false-negatives that you'll run into. False-positives meaning that people say -- you think they are a person with a disability when they may not be. And some people say they are a person with a disability when they are not.

   So what to do? Use multiple types of questions within one survey. Limit the use of the word "Disability" when possible. And there are other types of questions that might be useful to you that generally don't appear in a lot of the types of national survey work that you see. And these are specific questions about whether people used certain services that generally come with an eligibility requirement, such as vocational rehabilitation, special education, mental health services, Department of Mental retardation. If someone ever received any income supports related to disability, such as SSI or DI. The other is that asking about specific equipment can help, like wheelchairs, scooters, use of service dogs.

   And I'll give you the end -- I'll give you some sample questions for each of these, and I'm hoping this is very practical. Feel free to lift stuff where you need to.

   But the sample questions, I'm hoping these are things that can help you figure out what you might want to include. One strategy here is to walk through almost like a decision tree. So you start out asking someone "Do you have a chronic health condition diagnosed by a doctor?" and sometimes you can just do yes or no. You can do whether you have one condition, two conditions, three to five, five or more. Now, the advantage on this is most people say yes to at least one. And I would recommend not listing, asking for the specific condition. Most people are going to understand what that means. And then you follow that up with "Has this condition lasted more than 6 months?" So people who have said yes and then say no less than 6 months are people that are not likely to meet a disability definition. People who said yes and it lasted more than six months, they may. You still don't know yet. But they are the pool that may. And I think you'll get less undercounting with some of this method.

   Then you might want to ask a functional/activity question. So: Do you have any difficulty with the following, and you create your own list. Due to health condition, sensory, mobility, cognitive or psychiatric impairment? I would group them like that, and one of the reasons is that you want to avoid saying: Do you have any difficulty with the following due to a disability? Because you already will lose people. But sometimes saying health condition, sensory, mobility, cognitive or psychiatric impairment will align with a disability group, folks say yes. Folks who didn't consider themselves with a disability, they are still okay with "impairment." So it's a language that seems to work a little bit better.

   And now that you've got your folks that, they have got a health condition, it's lasting more than six months, see if they pick an impairment or a functional limitation that they are having trouble with. And you could say there are certain percentages that are having trouble with working or seeing or hearing or communicating.

   Now, what is odd about this, even folks -- say people who are using wheelchairs, they may say no, I have no difficulty walking. And that is sometimes because they say I don't have difficulty walking, because I don't walk. And I use my wheelchair and I can get around. So no, I don't have difficulty. Or I don't have trouble seeing, because I have a guide dog and so I don't need to be able to do that. I've got the assistive technology and accommodations that I need.

   So you will still get people who have -- who clearly meet a disability definition still saying no to this. But that is okay. Because now you've got your folks that you've got -- they have a health condition, it's lasting more than 6 months, and now you've got some with functional activity limitations. So you're meeting your definition.

   Follow it up with a device question.

Which devices, equipment or assistants do you use? And this could be a long list or a specific list, depending on your population. Ask: Do you use a wheelchair, a guide dog, white cane, readers. You can create a long list. You have to just check one. And if they say no to the previous questions, but they say yes I use a service animal, they are a person you can count as someone with a disability; or yes, I use a wheelchair, that will help you out. Not everyone with a disability will use these devices, but some folks who said no to limitations or impairments might say yes on this one. This one can help you capture folks that meet disability definitions but don't necessarily meet functional or don't perceive that they meet a functional limitation. They may meet that; they just don't perceive that they do.

   Very tricky problem in that the ADA and the 504 definition say you must have a functional limitation. Not everyone perceives having a functional limitation, even if they may have been determined to have one.

   Service use. This is where you can get into -- and these are pretty straightforward. Have you ever used any of the following services? Have you ever received SSI or DI?

   And then the self identification measure. Do you consider yourself to be a person with a disability? Do other people consider you to be a person with a disability? These get at very interesting things. There are people that may meet the definition of disability, because other people consider them to be a person with a disability. An example might be someone who may have been born with a facial scarring or deformity that creates a lot of socialization. That is an example that the World Health Organization uses quite readily, in which there is discrimination against this person. They face possible work discrimination, but they don't meet an impairment or a functional impairment or a health condition metric. So that can be something that can help you out.

   It's controversial in that if you're trying to use it for program evaluation, you may want to think about whether you want to use that or not. And, frankly, I kind of avoid self-identification measures as much as I can in certain surveys, because I find that people answer those in very odd ways. You get people that say no to that question, and yet have -- are using wheelchairs. So I'm not entirely certain that asking these two questions is going to get you what you need.

   I'm going to leave some time for questions. The remainder of this presentation is really about administration of your survey. And I think -- I've gotten a couple of questions previous to the conference call in which people were very concerned about confidentiality and accessibility, and so I'll give you a short two minutes on that and then I'll open it up for questions.

   Generally, in survey research, you'll get higher responses when you do a survey in person or over the telephone. You get very poor response on mailed surveys and e-mail surveys. And it requires a lot of follow-up work. However, the problem being generally the most accessible mechanism for survey research is through either in person or e-mail.

So that's something to consider is to what extent can you do your surveys in person? And, unfortunately, the most expensive method is to do it in person.

   If you have a program and you have people physically there, there may be a way to do it where they are already there, and that is less expensive because you are physically there as well. It's not the travel time and the paying someone to do an interview, which is often what survey researchers will have to do. You may be able to create some kind of survey episode where you are able to provide some kind of staff person or member who can survey your volunteers or interview your volunteers in person.

   Which leads us to the next question: Protections. There are two strategies that you can use in a survey, guaranteeing confidentiality or guaranteeing that this survey is anonymous. Confidentiality is what a lot of outside survey researchers will use. So, for example, if you're a commission and you wanted to hire an outside firm to do survey research, they probably are going to think about confidentiality, because they want to be able to determine who responded.

   So I would send a person a survey. I'd be able to match their records, what they filled out. But I would guarantee them confidentiality. I would never share their name and what -- and their data with anyone.

   Anything would be in the aggregate. And that is an accepted practice among human subjects' activities, to guarantee that confidentiality. It will mean that that survey research group will not give you the names of people that even engaged in the survey. It will just say we got 80 percent response rate and here is your prevalence rate.

   Anonymous surveys are the surveyor had no idea who answered the survey. There is no way to match who said what. And that can be useful when people are very concerned about disclosure. However, you may also need to consider that sometimes anonymous surveys are not so anonymous when you look at the range of information that someone might fill out. If you have 50 people in your program, but you only have one African-American, then when that person answers the survey and if there is a race or ethnicity question, they are automatically -- their answers are obvious who it is.

   So you need to be very sensitive to not just the disability issues, but the other characteristics of people that may make them very shy to answer a survey in which there might be some risk to them.

   So thinking about these two settings, there are ways that you can handle this, that I can go into a longer discussion and I'd be happy to beyond the conference call, if that is needed.

   And I might skip down here a bit so I can get to questions. I did want to mention, somebody had asked if you can survey people at application. And I just wanted to say there are some legal issues about when you ask about disability, if it's tied to employment or volunteer experience. But it's a little different if you're surveying members and it has no relationship to their status as a volunteer or as a worker. You absolutely need to create a firewall or a divide between those two things. But surveys you can take at any point.

   I would, if you're surveying your members and they are applying for your program, you definitely need to create some kind of mechanism that prevents disclosure. And sometimes that can be a third-party. Sometimes it could be an anonymous survey. There might be ways that we can create that mechanism so that they are aware that the person hiring them, supervising them, has absolutely no idea what that person may have said on a survey.

   So, just as a summary, if you're crafting a survey, try to use multiple measures of disability. And even though they may have some cautions about any one particular question, if you're using the same instrument over time, so after the end of every program year you're trying to figure out did you increase the number of people with disabilities, if you keep those measures as similar as you can, and define your terms, then it's an instrument that you can use to see we're doing better that year than we were last year. Or five years from now we increased our numbers as compared to now, as a very good use of a survey like this.

   You might want to identify subpopulations. So if you're very concerned that you don't have enough or that you have an initiative going that you are trying to recruit people with visual impairments, then ask that on your survey.

   I'm going to now open it up for questions and take the order in which they first appear. So please, if you have a question, please press the hand button.

   No questions? That is remarkable.

   I think that I would be happy to make sure that people get the Power Point and, you know, as I said, if you want to take any of the questions that we crafted here and try them out.

   What I would suggest you do is if you're going to create a survey like this, pilot it with people, you know, five to ten people that may be very open about having a disability or work with a program that you can do some kind of advisory group. And ask them to fill it out and give you, right on the survey, what sort of things that they think are coming up. Because, quite frankly, you learn a heck of a lot by piloting a survey, even with such a small group of five people, particularly if you know the answers. You know this person is a person with a disability, but does my survey actually capture that? It's an extremely valuable thing to find out. It's called cognitive testing. Frankly, every time I've done that, I learned something new about how to do this. Because I'm completely floored by what I thought I was getting and the difference in what people perceive it to be.

   So, with that, I'll give people a last chance for any questions. And then I guess I'll turn it over to Elesheva Soloff and Alvaro to give you a close out.

   Thank you for the applause, Quintin. Oh, multiple people. Thank you very much.

   (Applause.)

   Well, you know, I have to say, it's been really fun using this technology. And I thank you all for bearing with us on our clunky maneuvering through it. But I have to say, it's very rewarding to see those flashing applause signs. I recommend if you do any presentation, you do all you can to get people to applaud you. It's very fun.

   >> ELESHEVA SOLOFF: Thank you, Susan Foley, for sharing all of this to us. And you have more people applauding. One thing I wanted -- and I want to thank Alvaro for all your technical help. And I want to let you know that there are other conference calls coming up. And if you have any questions, like the survey, if you want to put it together for your group and you would like us, the National Inclusion Project, we would be happy to do that. Give us a call, or over the e-mail. before you log off, I would like you to fill out the evaluation, so that it helps us for the future in the teleconference calls. Thank you. And I think if you want to get the Power Point, we will have it in our archives. It might take us a week or so, oh, 24 hours, according to Alvaro. We can put it on the website. Give us a week, just in case. But you can definitely access it and you can use it for your own organization.

   I thank you, everyone, for joining us. And please fill in the evaluation. Thank you.

   (End of presentation, 4:00 p.m. EST)

  


This text is being provided in a rough draft format. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings.




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©The National Service Inclusion Project (NSIP) is a training and technical assistance provider on disability inclusion. NSIP partners with the Association on University Centers on Disability, National Council on Independent Living, Association on Higher Education and Disability and National Down Syndrome Congress to build connections between disability organizations and all CNCS grantees, including national directs, to increase the participation of people with disabilities in national service.